There are often misconceptions that fluency means one must memorize basic facts and standard U.S. algorithms in order to do math quickly. Such is not the case. Students are fluent when they can efficiently solve a problem using strategies they understand. Further, students are fluent when they build off their number sense and explain how they computed. As students achieve correct answers, they must do so while explaining their methods. The standards in this strand allow students to transition from skip counting to learning and mastering basic multiplication and division facts. After that, they expand their fact knowledge into fluently multiplying and dividing within 100 before they master the standard U.S. algorithm for multiplication in Grade 5 and for division in Grade 6. The expectation is that students will understand why the standard U.S. algorithms for multiplication and division work by building off prior knowledge from Grades 2-4. Additionally, students begin multiplying and dividing fractions in Grade 5. Initially, they engage in concrete experiences that foster conceptual understandings as they move toward the standard U.S. algorithms in Grade 6. In seventh grade students expand upon prior knowledge from Grades K-6 to fluently multiply and divide rational numbers.